AI Confirms Discovery Of Fifty New Planets While Analysing Old NASA DataNASA

Artificial intelligence (AI) has confirmed the existence of 50 new planets by analysing old data from NASA telescopes. 

As part of their mission to find new planets, scientists use telescopes such as NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) to look for signs that a planet is passing between the telescope and a star.

This movement, known as transiting, results in a telltale dip in light from the star. However, the dip isn’t always caused by a planet, and could instead be the result of a binary star system, interference from an object in the background or even slight errors in the camera.

Launching today, our planet-hunting @NASA_TESS spacecraft will fly in a unique orbit that’ll allow it to study nearly the entire sky over 2 years. This special orbit is key in potentially finding thousands of new planets outside our solar system. Watch: pic.twitter.com/aEB6zeeYSf

— NASA (@NASA) April 16, 2018

If the cause of the dip isn’t a planet it leads to a false positive in the telescope data, meaning scientists have to sift through the data to figure out which findings are actually planets, and which are false positives.

Understandably, this is a big job, but now scientists have found a way to have AI do much of the heavy lifting.

Researchers from the University of Warwick’s Departments of Physics and Computer Science, as well as The Alan Turing Institute, developed a new machine learning algorithm that is trained to analyse a sample of potential planets and determine which are real and which are ‘fakes’.

Fifty potential planets have had their existence confirmed by a new machine learning algorithm developed by @WarwickAstro and @warwickstats scientists.

Read more: https://t.co/wKBn1ckK4M

— Warwick Newsroom (@warwicknewsroom) August 25, 2020

The AI was trained to recognise real planets using two samples of confirmed planets and false positives from the now-retired Kepler mission. Researchers then used the algorithm on a dataset of planetary candidates from Kepler that were yet to be confirmed.

Using its knowledge of real planets and false positives, the AI was able to confirm the existence of 50 new planets, the first to be validated by machine learning.

The newly confirmed planets range from being as large as Neptune to smaller than Earth, with orbits lasting as long as 200 days to as little as a single day.

UniversePixabay

Dr David Armstrong, from the University of Warwick Department of Physics, said researchers hope to apply the AI algorithm to large samples of candidates from current and future missions like TESS and PLATO.

He commented:

In terms of planet validation, no-one has used a machine learning technique before. Machine learning has been used for ranking planetary candidates but never in a probabilistic framework, which is what you need to truly validate a planet.

Rather than saying which candidates are more likely to be planets, we can now say what the precise statistical likelihood is. Where there is less than a 1% chance of a candidate being a false positive, it is considered a validated planet.

We still have to spend time training the algorithm, but once that is done it becomes much easier to apply it to future candidates. You can also incorporate new discoveries to progressively improve it.

Fast, automated systems like this that can take us all the way to validated planets in fewer steps let us do that efficiently.

Once it is built and trained, the algorithm works faster than existing techniques and can be completely automated, meaning it could analyse the potentially thousands of planetary candidates observed in current surveys like TESS, and allow astronomers to prioritise the confirmed planets for further observations.

The researchers argue that the algorithm should be one of the tools to be collectively used to validate planets in future.

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Norwegian Oil Billionaire Says BTC Could Be Worth Millions of Dollars Each — Puts Liquid Company Assets in Bitcoin

Billionaire Kjell Inge Rokke’s company, Aker, has established a new business dedicated to bitcoin. Rokke believes that bitcoin could “become the core of a new monetary architecture” and each coin could be “worth millions of dollars.” His new company “will keep all its liquid investable assets in bitcoin.”

Norwegian Public Company Gets Into Bitcoin

Norwegian oil billionaire Kjell Inge Rokke has spoken in favor of bitcoin. His company, Aker ASA, which controls oil and oil service companies, announced Monday that it has established a new business, Seetee AS, to tap into the potential of the cryptocurrency.

Listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange, Aker is a Norwegian holding company engaged in offshore fishing, construction, and engineering. Established in 2004, the company is controlled by Rokke with 67% ownership through TRG Holding.

In its announcement, Aker described Seetee as “a new company dedicated to investing in projects and companies throughout the bitcoin ecosystem and which will keep all its liquid investable assets in bitcoin.” Seetee is starting with 500 million kroner ($59 million) in capital, which Rokke called “an amount we aim to increase significantly over time.”

Following the announcement, Rokke expressed his view on bitcoin and the new enterprise launch in a shareholder letter published on Seetee’s website. The billionaire wrote:

We will use bitcoin as our treasury asset and join the community. In bitcoin speak, we will be hodler.

Initially, Seetee will focus on four areas. The first is “investing in and owning bitcoin.” The second is “joining the bitcoin and broader blockchain community and establishing partnerships with leading players.” The third is “launching bitcoin verification operations,” and the fourth is “building and investing in innovation projects and companies in the bitcoin and blockchain ecosystem.”

Seetee will actively partner with other companies in order to accelerate its initiatives, the announcement adds, noting that the company has “entered into a collaboration agreement with Blockstream,” which “will initially focus on mining operations.”

Rokke further opined:

Bitcoin may still go to zero. But it can also become the core of a new monetary architecture. If so, one bitcoin may be worth millions of dollars.

He added: “The direction is clear: finance will be disrupted as surely as fossil fuels will be. The question is not if, but when.”

What do you think of Rokke’s bitcoin strategy? Let us know in the comments section below.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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On February 25, onchain analysts noticed two 2010 block rewards that were transferred after sitting dormant for over a decade. A lot of old blocks have been spent in 2021, and after the large strings of 2010 block rewards spent … read more.

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Something normal happened on Twitter earlier this afternoon. Someone claiming to be Elon Musk started tweeting an obvious scam to entice his loyal bootlickers to send bitcoin to a random cryptocurrency wallet. This happens all the time, but the strange thing about today was that the tweets were coming from Musk’s verified account. And nearly identical tweets were coming from accounts of people like Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Kanye West, Joe Biden, Barack Obama, Warren Buffett, every major crypto-exchange, and I’m quickly losing track of all of ‘em.

This is obviously the result of a Twitter hack the likes of which we’ve never seen before. A spokesperson for the social network told Gizmodo that they are aware of the situation and will issue a statement shortly, which they did right before publication.

The hackers appear to be using a number of different wallets but the address being used on tweets from Musk and Gates has received around $59,000 worth of bitcoin so far.

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The sudden flurry of activity seems to be calming down. Apple, for instance, is back to its usual standard of having zero tweets after it tweeted the scam just moments ago. But the list of prominent users who were affected continues to grow and now the fake screenshots are taking over so we’ll probably never sort out all the people who were hit by the attack.

This is an ongoing story and we’ll continue updating this post as we receive more information.

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Crypto Markets Suffer Heavy Losses, Bitcoin Price Sinks More Than 25% in 24 Hours

Cryptocurrency markets have suffered significant losses during the last 24 hours, as the entire crypto market cap has dropped below a trillion to $823 billion losing roughly 9.9% in value. Since the bitcoin price height on Sunday, January 10, bitcoin’s price plummeted over 25%, seeing the largest price dive of the year.

Digital currency markets are in the red on Monday, as crypto assets have lost anywhere between 15% to over 35% during the last 24 hours. The leading digital asset by market valuation, bitcoin (BTC) is down over 20% at the time of publication.

Bitcoin (BTC) dropped to a low of $30,261 on Monday afternoon (EST) losing 25.2% after reaching a high of $41,056 on Sunday. At the time of writing, BTC is swapping for prices above $32k per unit with $38 billion in global BTC trade volume.

Ethereum lost significant value during the last 24 hours as well as the crypto asset is currently down 27%. Ethereum (ETH) is swapping for $933 per unit after reaching well above the $13k handle the day prior.

XRP took a 15% loss as it trades for $0.27 per token and bitcoin cash (BCH) is down 30% today. BCH hit a 2021 high on Sunday, capturing a value of over $625 per coin. Right now, however, bitcoin cash (BCH) is changing hands at $413 per unit.

The biggest gainers today are up between 8% to 91% on Monday with the token stakenet leading the pack. This is followed by other crypto-assets that have seen gains on Monday including STK, ZEN, MXC, and DAG.

The biggest losing token today in the crypto economy is CTXC which has lost 47%. Following CTXC, coins such as DMT, BCD, RCN, and MKR have seen some deep losses as well.

Since bitcoin’s (BTC) significant drop this past weekend, there’s now an upside gap on the CME Group bitcoin futures chart. The two large gaps on both sides are between $23,670 – $26,645 (downside) and between $39,165 – $40,535 (upside).

Simon Peters, an analyst at Etoro, explained in a note to investors that crypto markets are still in a healthy position. “Despite the dip yesterday— we are still in a healthy position,” Peters wrote. “Not only are we continuing to see institutional investment, but bitcoin being held on exchanges is decreasing as investors move their tokens to wallets, with Glassnode data showing an increasing level of illiquid bitcoin as more and more investors hodl.”

The Etoro analyst further added he wouldn’t be surprised to see BTC prices above the $70k range at the end of the year. “I believe we can look to the $70,000-90,000 range as a price target for the end of 2021,” Peters said. “There will inevitably be bumps along the road, and no doubt a number of retracements will occur, but there are also gains still to be had.”

Check out all the latest cryptocurrency price action in real-time at markets.Bitcoin.com.

What do you think about the big cryptocurrency price dips on Monday? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Image Credits: Shutterstock, Pixabay, Wiki Commons, Bitcoin Wisdom, Markets.Bitcoin.com, Twitter,

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Market capitalization has become an obsession with many cryptocurrency watchers.

bitcoin, the largest cyrptocurrency by market cap, having a quiet start to the year, many investors are looking at alternative coins. Ethereum and ripple, for example, have both seen fairly strong rallies to begin the year. And many are wondering which one could usurp bitcoin as the biggest cryptocurrency.

Ethereum and ripple have been jostling for the second spot, and that has changed depending on price. But Ripple’s price doesn’t need to go much higher in dollar terms if it’s to become the biggest, because it has more coins in circulation that bitcoin and ethereum.

Ripple’s current circulation is 38,739,144,847 digital coins. At Monday’s price of $2.57, its market cap was $99.54 billion, according to CoinMarketCap.com. Bitcoin’s market cap, meanwhile, was $259.6 billion on Tuesday.

For ripple to surpass this, the cryptocurrency would only need to get to $6.80. This would require a rise of 164.5 percent, which is small considering it rose nearly 36,000 percent last year.

Ethereum has a circulating supply of 96,846,982. Its current price is $1,162, according to CoinMarketCap. It’s market cap is $112.6 billion. Ether would need to rise to around $2,700 to surpass bitcoin’s value. This would require a 132 percent rally from Monday morning’s price, which is smaller than the rise required by ripple.

Both these cryptocurrencies benefit from having larger circulating supplies than bitcoin. It means the price of each digital coin can be lower to achieve a higher market cap. Bitcoin’s supply is capped at 21 million with the current supply standing at 16,789,425.

Of course, if bitcoin sees a surge in price this year, it will make it harder for either cryptocurrency to surpass it.

Still, some experts have suggested that ripple has run ahead of itself. Ripple works with large institutions and unlike bitcoin, many of the coins are actually owned by the company. This means it’s not as decentralized as bitcoin is.

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Satoshi’s 21 Million Mystery: One-Millionth of the Bitcoin Supply Cap Is Now Worth $1 Million

On Sunday, March 7, 2021, the price per bitcoin jumped over the $50k handle once again, as the digital asset’s overall market capitalization is around $925 billion. One thing is for certain, there will never be more than 21 million bitcoin and today there’s roughly 18,647,525 bitcoin in circulation. Interestingly, anyone who owns 21 bitcoin or one-millionth of the entire supply is currently a millionaire today.

The ’21 Million Bitcoin Club’

Back in 2017, finance publications reported on a number of crypto proponents “gunning” for exclusive membership into the ’21 million club.’ The 21 million club refers to the number of bitcoins that will ever be produced and by the year 2140, that number will be 21 million BTC. During the last few years, many enthusiasts have tried to join the 21 million club by obtaining a single bitcoin, which is exchanging hands for a touch over $50k on Sunday morning.

For years now people can find a myriad of forum posts about people who have finally made it into the exclusive club of owners who hold a single bitcoin (BTC).

“After almost [two] years in crypto, I finally got in,” an individual wrote on Reddit two years ago. “It might be small for most of you here, but for a person in a third world country, this is a huge accomplishment. Now, to focus on my [altcoins], then sell them for BTC at the most opportune moment. Wish me luck,” he added.

Members of the 21 million club who own a single BTC, also own precisely 0.0000047619% of the entire supply per owner. Then there’s another club of bitcoiners who have obtained approximately 21 BTC or 0.0000999999% of the entire capped bitcoin supply.

Today one-millionth of the bitcoin supply is now worth over 1 million U.S. dollars. One-millionth of the bitcoin supply is approximately 21 bitcoin. This week, is another instance of this occasion, as BTC prices dropped in value a few days ago after reaching an all-time high (ATH) at $58,354 on February 21.

Ten days prior to the bitcoin (BTC) price ATH, crypto writer Pete Rizzo tweeted “One-millionth of the bitcoin supply is now worth $1 million.” At the time of publication, 132,325 addresses hold anywhere between 10-100 BTC, and owners of one-millionth of the bitcoin supply are represented among this aggregate of addresses.

Besides the enthusiasts that want to simply join the 21 million club by owning a single coin, there are many who have been obsessed with joining the club of owners who own a millionth of the BTC supply.

“The 21 BTC club becomes more difficult to join,” explains a web portal dubbed “21-btc.club.”

Why Did Satoshi Choose the 21 Million Supply Cap?

The reasoning behind why Satoshi Nakamoto chose the 21 million supply limit may have been done purposely for a number of reasons. According to an email between Mike Hearn and Nakamoto, however, the Bitcoin network inventor chose the 21 million limit number so it would align with the M1 money supply of fiat currencies like the euro and U.S. dollar. Back in 2008, the M1 money supply was approximately 21 trillion when Nakamoto published the white paper.

“I wanted to pick something that would make prices similar to existing currencies, but without knowing the future, that’s very hard. I ended up picking something in the middle,” Nakamoto said in the email to Hearn.

Satoshi Nakamoto added:

If Bitcoin remains a small niche, it’ll be worth less per unit than existing currencies. If you imagine it being used for some fraction of world commerce, then there’s only going to be 21 million coins for the whole world, so it would be worth much more per unit.

The white paper’s math also shows that the 21 million number further aligns perfectly with some of the interesting design patterns within the software. For instance, the 21 million number is integral to the block reward halving, alongside the 10-minute average time to mine a BTC block. Rewards are also cut in half every 210,000 blocks mined, and currently miners get 6.25 BTC per block.

Interestingly, the smallest unit in the Bitcoin network is a single satoshi or 0.00000001 BTC. The Ph.D., Christian Seberino explained in 2018, that Satoshi likely chose the 21 million in order to “involve floating-point arithmetic.”

Seberino says that even though BTC’s supply limit seems arbitrary, the reasoning behind why Satoshi chose the number is quite sound.

“It helps avoid errors on most computer systems, and is likely sufficient for all possible transactions everywhere,” Seberino emphasized. “Floating-point arithmetic is a type of mathematics used by computers to handle decimals. Decimals are often represented with 64 bits where one bit denotes the sign, 11 bits denote an exponent, and, 52 bits denote a fraction.”

The paper written by Seberino adds:

To avoid rounding errors, it is often a good idea to avoid integers that cannot be represented with only the fraction bits. To be extra safe, it may help to also leave one fraction bit unused. With respect to 64 bit decimals, that would limit integers to 51 bits. The maximum integer that can be represented with 51 bits is just slightly over 2100 trillion.

We honestly don’t have a solid answer to why Nakamoto chose the 21 million limit and he could have had insights into some numerological concepts we don’t know about. The 21 million clubs, whether it be holders of one single coin or 21 bitcoins total, will likely continue to grow over time and even change hands across generational wealth boundaries.

Furthermore, every time bitcoin (BTC) increases by $50k, then the holders of 21 BTC will see a wealth increase by another $1 million USD. Some would say it’s not too late to join the clubs, if they are interested in carrying wealth into the future.

What do you think about the 21 million bitcoin club and the reasons behind why Satoshi Nakamoto chose that number for the supply limit? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Image Credits: Shutterstock, Pixabay, Wiki Commons, Cryptoart.com, Alix Branwyn, Christian Seberino,

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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The ongoing Bitcoin (BTC) rally has primarily been driven by institutions, analysts say, with metrics such as CME’s open interest and Grayscale’s assets under management (AUM), supporting this narrative. 

At the same time, the gold market has seen large outflows in recent weeks. On Nov. 24, independent financial researcher Jan Nieuwenhuijs reported that gold saw its largest weekly outflow in history.

Largest outflow from gold ever. pic.twitter.com/Re4o3PHrel

— Jan Nieuwenhuijs (@JanGold_)

The timing of the heightened level of outflows from the gold market is noteworthy because it comes after the entrance of major institutional investors into the Bitcoin market.

Cointelegraph reported that Guggenheim Partners, which manages $275 billion in assets, is the latest institution to show interest in Bitcoin.

What does this mean for Bitcoin?

In the medium to long term, the inflow of institutional capital into Bitcoin could lead to two key trends.

First, Bitcoin could see a more sustained uptrend that has emerged since September. Institutions, especially those gaining exposure to BTC through the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust, are likely accumulating BTC with a long-term strategy.

Some long-time Bitcoin investors, who had gold positions for prolonged periods, have also started to allocate their capital fully into BTC. Raoul Pal, the CEO of Real Vision Group, said:

Second, fund managers say that this could make Bitcoin even more dominant in the cryptocurrency market. Currently, the market cap of Bitcoin accounts for 63.83% of the global cryptocurrency market’s valuation.

Kyle Davies, the co-founder at Three Arrows Capital, one of the largest funds in the cryptocurrency sector, said:

The near-term trend of BTC remains uncertain

Bitcoin has seen strong momentum throughout the past three months, barely seeing major corrections.

During previous bull cycles, it’s not uncommon for BTC to see 30% pullbacks, and the recent run is yet to post a major downturn. But, in the near term, on-chain analysts say that BTC could be braced for a deeper drop.

Ki Young Ju, the CEO of CryptoQuant, said that whales are keeping more BTC on exchanges than in the past few months. This could indicate that whales could sell more BTC in the foreseeable future. He said:

Whether the buyer demand from institutions and their Time-weighted Average Price (TWAP) algorithms would counter the selling pressure from whales would likely dictate the short-term price cycle of BTC.

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“This became more and more concerning, because every time the markets went down, you have seen the same thing happen,” said Joey Krug, the co-chief investment officer at Pantera Capital, which runs several virtual currency hedge funds. “It could mean that a lot of the rally over December and January might not have been real.”

Long before news of the subpoena, Bitfinex, which is believed to host more trading than any other Bitcoin exchange in the world, had gained a reputation for a lack of transparency and a confusing structure, with European executives, offices in Asia and registration in the Caribbean.

It is not yet clear what information the regulators are seeking. Technically, the Tether tokens are issued by a separate company (called Tether) that is owned and operated by the same people who run Bitfinex. The C.F.T.C. subpoenaed that company at the same time that it subpoenaed Bitfinex, according to a person familiar with the matter.

Bitfinex has not commented on the subpoena or recent reports about Tether, and company officials did not respond to repeated requests for comment. In the past, the exchange’s executives and spokesman have said that its customers are simply using Tether to buy virtual currencies as they might otherwise use United States dollars.

Bitfinex had contracted with an American firm, Friedman, to audit its records and prove that its operation of Tether is above board. But last week, Bitfinex said it was cutting ties with Friedman, after waiting months for it to finish the audit. That news generated more suspicion.

“It’s a signal to the market of what those who have scrutinized the situation already believe: There is a problem here,” said Jill Carlson, a former trader at Goldman Sachs who now consults with a variety of virtual currency companies. “The dissolution of a relationship between an auditor and a company is very rarely a good sign that the company is behaving in accordance with market best practices.”

The New York Times Explains…

The concern about Bitfinex is one of several issues that have helped depress the value of virtual currencies over the last month, after a roaring, yearlong rally. Regulators in several countries, like South Korea and the United States, have expressed concerns about manipulation and fraud, and hinted at a crackdown.

In Japan, a large virtual currency exchange, Coincheck, was hacked in late January and lost nearly $500 million worth of a virtual currency known as NEM, raising questions about the relatively untested security practices of virtual currency exchanges.

Still, Japan is one of the few places where virtual currency exchanges are overseen by regulators. Many of the largest virtual currency exchanges, including Bitfinex, operate with essentially no regulatory oversight.

Photo
Coincheck’s president, Koichiro Wada, left, bowed in apology at a news conference in Tokyo on Friday. Coincheck lost nearly $500 million worth of a virtual currency after it was hacked.Credit Takuya Inaba/Kyodo News, via Associated Press

Bitfinex was hacked in 2015 and again in 2016, and Tether was hacked at the end of last year — with the combined losses totaling more than $100 million.

The company shared few details about these hacks. But after the biggest theft, in 2016, it was cut off by Wells Fargo and its banks in Taiwan.

The banking problems have made it hard for customers to get money in and out of Bitfinex, but traders have continued to use the exchange, in part because of Tether.

Tether offered a preliminary report last year from Friedman, the accounting firm, suggesting that it had bank accounts with dollars corresponding to all the Tether that had been issued. But the report was far from conclusive and Tether has never produced a real audit, leading to suspicions that Bitfinex may be printing virtual money backed by nothing.

The Tether currency has been valuable to traders because it allows them to hold a stable token, tied to the value of the dollar, and move it quickly between virtual currency exchanges.

But there is a downside. Because the identity of Tether holders is not always clear, the movement of the virtual token between exchanges — and across national borders — has raised concerns among lawyers about money laundering. The spread of Tether beyond Bitfinex has also spread the risk of its failure to other exchanges.

Market analysts have grown particularly concerned with the rapid pace at which new Tether have been issued and their timing. In a single week in mid-January, $450 million new Tether were created, bringing the total amount of Tether to more than $2 billion.

Several anonymous reports circulating among traders, including one posted to a website last week, have pointed to data from Bitfinex itself, showing that the price of Bitcoin has frequently gone up soon after new Tether were created, generally as a result of big trades on Bitfinex.

“This absolutely reeks of price manipulation,” a security researcher and market analyst, Tony Arcieri, wrote on his blog in mid-January.

Many investors and traders have pushed back against that criticism, noting that smart traders simply may be looking to buy when the markets are down.

“My personal biases make me inclined to believe that Bitfinex is not using Tether to manipulate the price of Bitcoin,” said Jeremy Gardner, a managing partner at the investment firm Ausum Ventures. “If they have attempted to do so, which would be deeply concerning, it’s hard to imagine that such fraudulent issuance at its current volume could single-handedly buoy the price of Bitcoin.”

But Mr. Krug, at Pantera Capital, said that if Tether were really being used by investors, they would probably also want to buy new Tether when the markets were going up, which has not been the case. Also, they would not always want it in exact increments of $100 million, as has been the case.

“After you see this enough times, you just start to wonder what’s really going on here,” Mr. Krug said.

The Bitcoin community is sensitive to the possibility of price manipulation because a team of academics published an article in early January suggesting that the price of Bitcoin was artificially inflated in 2013 by a single player operating on the largest exchange at the time, Mt. Gox.

One of the authors of that paper, Tyler Moore, said it could be hard to tell if similar price manipulation were going on today, though he noted that a lack of transparency made it hard for anyone to be certain of anything.

“Greater assurances are needed that the trades taking place are in fact legitimate and reflect buying and selling by independent actors,” said Mr. Moore, an assistant professor at the University of Tulsa. “Unless and until such oversight is implemented, we cannot trust the exchange rate to reflect only legitimate sources of supply and demand.”

Follow Nathaniel Popper on Twitter: @nathanielpopper

A version of this article appears in print on February 1, 2018, on Page B3 of the New York edition with the headline: Currency Investors Fear Bitcoin Is Being Propped Up by a Shadowy Exchange.

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